Peer-reviewed articles:


The effect of entry restrictions on price. Evidence from the retail gasoline market (accepted for publication), Journal of Regulatory Economics. 

Abstract: I exploit a change in Spanish regulations to test the effect of entry restrictions on retail diesel equilibrium prices. In February 2013, a Central Government reform allowed gasoline stations to operate in industrial and commercial areas. This deregulation led to a high number of new market entrants over the following two years in these newly designated free entry areas. By isolating markets exposed to entry and markets not affected by new entrants, and using a difference-in-difference approach, results show that stations that experience entry within one mile lower prices by on average 1.04%. This result is economically signicant, representing almost one fifth of the average retail margin. Additionally, the results show that the equilibrium price reduction is caused by the first entry into the market and that the effect decreases over time.

The effects of the Morocco-European Union open skies agreement: A difference-in-differences analysis  (2017), Transportation Research Part E, Vol. 98, p. 24-41Joint with X. Fageda – Impact factor: 2.279 (Economics, 36/345, Q1)

Abstract: In this paper, we examine the effects of the open skies agreement signed between the EU and Morocco in December 2006. Specifically, we exploit the fact that Morocco was the only country in North Africa to sign such an agreement and that the pre-liberalization traffic in all North African countries presented a common trend. We use data at the route level for the period 2003-2010 to run difference-in-differences regressions and to test for heterogeneous responses. We find a 20-40% increase in the number of seats offered on pre-existing routes and a notable increase in the number of new routes offered.

Fast Charging Stations: Simulating Entry and Location in a Game of Strategic Interaction  (2016), Energy Economics, Vol. 60, p. 293-305.- Joint with J.R. Borrell and J. Perdiguero -. Impact factor: 2.862 (Economics, 22/345, Q1)

Abstract: This paper uses a game of strategic interaction to simulate entry and location of fast charging stations for electric vehicles. It evaluates the equilibria obtained in terms of social welfare and firm spatial differentiation. Using Barcelona mobility survey, demographic data and the street graph we find that only at an electric vehicle penetration rate above 3% does a dense network of stations appear as the equilibrium outcome of a market with no fiscal transfers. We also find that price competition drives location differentiation measured not only in Euclidean distances but also in consumer travel distances.

Do droughts have long-term effects on water consumption? Evidence from the urban area of Barcelona (2015), Applied Economics, Vol 47 (48), p. 5131-5146. – Joint with X. Fageda and M. Termes -. Impact factor: 0.586 (Economics, 236/345, Q3)

Abstract: This article examines the long-term effects of droughts on water consumption using data of municipalities of the urban area of Barcelona. Two important characteristics of the sample of municipalities are the relatively low water consumption in the pre-drought period and the fact that indoor uses are clearly predominant. Controlling for prices, income and various socio-demographic factors, we find a reduction in water consumption not only during the drought episode but also in subsequent periods. These permanent reductions in water use may be explained by household behavioural changes, technological changes or structural water policy changes.

Other publications:

Bernardo, V., J. R. Borrell & J. Perdiguero (2015) ‘Les ciutats i les pulsions restrictives de la competència en la prestació de serveis’, Revista Econòmica de Catalunya, Vol. 72, p. 115-124.

Bernardo, V., Jiménez, J.L. and J. Perdiguero (2014), Competencia y medidas liberalizadoras en el sector minorista de hidrocarburos: análisis del efecto sobre los precios de la entrada de nuevos operadores en España, Cuadernos Económicos de ICE, 88, 127-144.

Cruz-Zambrano, M., Bernardo, V., Corchero, C. y L. Igualada-Gonzalez (2013) Optimal location of fast charging stations in Barcelona: A Flow-Refueling Approach, 10th International Conference on the European Energy Market, IEE, DOI:10.1109/EEM.2013.6607414, p. 1-6.

Bernardo, V.,  Borrell, J.R. and C. Cassó (2013), Restricciones a la libertad de establecimiento: lo bueno, lo malo y lo feo, en A. Merino (Ed.) Regulación y competencia: en busca de efectos no deseados, Autoritat Catalana de la Competència (ACCO).

Bernardo, V. and J.R. Borrell (2013), Restricciones a la competencia en la atención farmacéutica de urgencia fuera del horario ordinario por parte de colegios de farmacéuticos de Cataluña, en A. Merino (Ed.) Regulación y competencia: en busca de efectos no deseados, Autoritat Catalana de la Competència (ACCO).